Special Viewports and Additional Components

ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) is used as a coating to borosilicate or sapphire viewports to allow electric conductivity while maintaining optical transmission. This prevents charge-build-up, the distortion of electric fields and the adsorption of charged particles (e.g. ceramic powders).

Additionally scintillation films (also known as phosphor films) can be deposited on these viewports to visualize diffraction patterns of electrons. Such coated viewports mainly used in surface analytical techniques such as RHEED (reflection high energy electron diffraction).

In some applications (e.g. RHEED) X-ray radiation is generated or used. To prevent this radiation from leaving the vacuum chamber X-ray absorbing lead glass caps can be attached to VACOM vacuum viewports.

To keep a clear view, rotatable viewport shutters can be placed on the vacuum-side of the viewport to shield the glass from heat or material deposition during processing.

In  order  to  position  optical  elements  more  flexibly  a  variety  of  special  designs  such  as  glass-to-metall-adaptors,  re-entry-viewports, viewports connected with metal tubes or bellows are available. With such designs optical elements can for example be dunked into the vacuum chamber and thus be brought closer to the test object. This can be used for focusing purposes. Another example is the connection of two chambers with a transparent glass-tube for monitoring purposes.

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